12 Handy Ubuntu Keyboard Shortcuts You Should Definitely Know

Ubuntu is one of the most popular Linux distributions, which is probably due to the fact that it easy to use, and is friendly enough for people who are new to Linux. However, if you want to quickly learn to navigate your way around your Ubuntu machine, learning keyboard shortcuts is one thing you must do. So, here are 12 Ubuntu keyboard shortcuts that will make your life easier:

1. View File Details (Properties) Quickly

If you want to view the properties of a file or folder, you will probably right click on the file, and click on “Properties“. However, there is a much easier (and faster) way of doing this. Simply select the file you want to view the properties for, and press “Ctrl + I“. This will directly open the properties panel for the file, or folder, without you having to take your hands off the keyboard.

view properties

2. View Folder Contents in a New Tab

Tabbed browsing is great, and you can open folders in new tabs, in the Ubuntu file manager. This is definitely a great feature, and will help you a lot. However, opening a folder in a new tab can be done in one of two ways: either you right click on the folder, and click on “Open in New Tab“, or you use the keyboard shortcut “Shift + Ctrl + T“. However, there is an easier way to do this.

Simply select the folder you want to open in a new tab, and press “Shift + Enter/Return“, and the folder will open up in a new tab.

view folder contents in new tab ubuntu

3. Show/Hide Hidden Files in File Manager

Another really handy shortcut to know, especially if you find yourself editing config files way too often, is how to show/hide hidden files in file manager. You can do this easily with a keyboard shortcut. Simply launch the file manager, and press “Ctrl + H“. This will toggle the hidden files between the visible/hidden state. So you can quickly find the file you were looking for, and then hide them all back again.

show hide hidden files in file manager ubuntu

4. Close All Windows of an Application

This shortcut can come in handy in situations where you quickly need to close all the windows of an app. Say you have multiple Terminals open, and you need to quit them all. You can do this easily with a keyboard shortcut. Simply press “Ctrl + Q“, and all the Terminal windows that you had opened will be closed immediately. If you just need to close a single window, press “Ctrl + W“, instead.

5. Quickly Open Trash

If you deleted a number of files, and just want to ensure that you’re not accidentally deleting an important one, the best way to do it, is to open the Trash, and check. However, doing this with the mouse can be time consuming, especially if you’re a keyboard heavy user. Fortunately, you can quickly launch the Trash with a keyboard shortcut, as well. Just press Super + T, and Ubuntu will open up the Trash for you.

Note: The “Super” key is usually the “Windows” key on a Windows keyboard, and the “Command” key on a Mac keyboard.

6. Easily Navigate the Menu Bar Items in Ubuntu

Say you’re working, and you need to access the app’s menu to get a particular job done. Instead of taking your hands off the keyboard, and using the mouse to navigate the menus, you can use a keyboard shortcut, as well. Simply press “Alt + F10” to navigate to the menu bar. Here, you can use the cursor keys to navigate between various menu options. This will definitely save you a lot of time, in the long run.

menu bar

7. Open the Dash, and Navigate Between Lenses

The Dash is where you can find all your installed apps. It is a lot like the Launchpad in macOS. However, launching the dash requires you to click on the icon in the launcher. Instead of doing that, you can simply press the “Super” key (windows/command), to open up the Dash.

dash and lenses ubuntu

Once the Dash is open, you can switch between various lenses such as the “Application Lens”, “File Lens”, and more, by using “Ctrl + Tab“, to easily look for things that you want to find.

8. Spread All Windows

If you’ve used a Mac, you must know about the App Exposé feature. It’s a very handy feature that can prove to be extremely useful when you have a lot of applications open, and need to get a bird’s eye view of all of them. To do this in Ubuntu, you can simply press “Super + W“, and all the open application windows will be spread out on the screen, so you can see everything that is open on your computer.

birds eye view

9. Minimize All Windows

If you have a lot of windows open on your computer, and you need to quickly go to the desktop, you can quickly minimize all of them using a simple keyboard shortcut. Just press “Ctrl + Super + D“, and all of your open windows will immediately minimize.

10. Delete Whole Words in One Go

Deleting a long word, by repeatedly pressing the delete key can be very frustrating. However, there is a keyboard shortcut that you can use to quickly delete a complete word. Place the cursor to the left of the word you want to delete, and press “Ctrl + Delete” to delete the word to the right of the cursor.

Note: If you’re using Ubuntu on a Mac, you can use “Control + Fn + Delete” to get the same result.

11. Drag Windows Easily

By default, if you want to drag a window to another location on your screen, you’ll have to click on the window title bar, and then drag it to the new location. However, you can also press “Alt” and then click anywhere on the window, and drag it to the new position. This can be very useful, as you don’t need to accurately place the cursor on the title bar of the window to move it around on the screen.

12. Resize Windows Easily

Resizing windows in Ubuntu can also be a hassle, because you need to place your cursor at the very edge of the window, for the resize icon to pop up. However, you can simply press “Alt” and then click and drag with the middle mouse button, to quickly resize the window you’re in. The best part is that you don’t need to place the cursor at the very edge. The cursor can be anywhere within the window, and this shortcut will work.

SEE ALSO: 7 Great Ubuntu Application Launchers You Can Use

Use These Ubuntu Keyboard Shortcuts to Make Your Life Easier

There are a lot of keyboard shortcuts available in Ubuntu, but these are the 12 that I think you should definitely know. Using these shortcuts will definitely make your life easier while using Ubuntu, and allow you to get your work done faster. As always, if you know of any other keyboard shortcuts for Ubuntu, that you think should be on this list, do let us know in the comments section below.

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How to Create Bootable Live USB with Multiple Linux Distros

One of the advantages of most Linux distributions, is the fact that you can run them off of a live USB, without having to install the OS itself on your machine. However, if for some reason, you require to have bootable media for a lot of Linux distributions, you’ll probably think about getting a number of different USB drives for each one of them. Well, fortunately, you don’t really need a lot of different USB flash drives, for each Linux distro you want to run. So, if you want to be able to boot into multiple Linux based operating systems off the same bootable USB, here is how you can create a multiboot USB:

Use YUMI to Create Multiboot USB on Windows

If you want to have multiple Linux operating systems installed on a single USB drive, all ready to be booted whenever you want, you can use a handy app called YUMI to do so. The application is only available for Windows (download), but you can use Wine to run it on a Mac, or Linux system.

Note: I’m running YUMI on a MacBook Air running macOS Sierra, using Wine.

To create a multiboot USB using YUMI, you can simply follow the steps mentioned below:

1. Launch YUMI. In the main screen of the app, select the drive letter corresponding to the USB drive you want to use as a bootable USB.

select the drive letter

2. Next, select the name of the distro you want to install. We’ll install Ubuntu as the first bootable Linux distro. Also, select the ISO file for Ubuntu (or the OS you want to install). Once done, click on “Create”.

select the distro and iso files

3. The application will install the required components on the USB drive. Once it is done, you will be presented with a dialog box asking if you want to install more distros. Click on “Yes“.

add more isos

4. You’ll be taken back to the main screen. Just select the name of the OS you want to install (I’m using Elementary OS). Also, select the ISO file for the distro you want to install.

select iso and distro name

5. Once the process is done, it’ll ask you if you want to install more distros. You can continue adding as many distros as you want on your USB drive. However, we’ll stop at 2 distros for this tutorial.

add more iso questions

You now have a bootable USB disk that you can use to live boot into any of the operating systems you installed on it. If you want to boot into any of the Linux distros you installed on your USB drive, just restart your computer, and use the USB drive as the boot media. The process for doing this varies a little depending on the make of your laptop. If you’re using a Mac, you can check out our guide for doing the same.

Running YUMI on macOS Sierra with Wine

If you want to use YUMI on a Mac, like I am, you can follow the steps below to get it up and running in no time.

1. Download Wine Staging from the official website. This will download a .pkg file on your Mac, that you can run to install Wine Staging on your Mac.

install winestaging

2. Once you have installed Wine, just right click on the YUMI.exe file. Go to “Open with“, and select “Wine Staging” from the menu.

open YUMI in WIne Staging

3. YUMI will immediately launch on your Mac, and you can follow the steps given in the previous section to install multiple Linux distros on your USB drive.

You can use this method to use YUMI on a Mac. I haven’t tried it on any Linux distro, but the process of running YUMI on Linux using Wine should be similar to running YUMI on Mac.

SEE ALSO: 10 Must Have Linux Apps You Should Install

Easily Create Multiboot Linux USB with YUMI

Now that you know how you can install multiple Linux distros on the same USB drive, and boot into any one of them, feel free to use YUMI to install as many Linux distros on your USB flash drive. However, be careful that you allow each of the operating systems at least 4-8 GB of space on the USB drive, to ensure that they can run smoothly.

So, have you ever wanted to have a single USB drive with multiple bootable Linux distros? How did you manage it? Also, if you know of any other methods to create a bootable Live USB with multiple Linux based operating systems, do let us know about them in the comments section below.

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5 Best Screen Recorders for Ubuntu You Can Use

Linux is a very powerful operating system, but it’s also highly accessible to a large number of people, thanks to distros such as Ubuntu, and the large community of people willing to help newcomers in solving their problems. You can use Ubuntu for power user functionality, and if you need a break, it supports a lot of games (both natively, and using compatibility layer software, such as Wine), as well. You can do a lot of cool stuff in Ubuntu, and you might want to show some of it off. This is where screen recorders step in. So, if you’re looking for some good Ubuntu screen recorder apps that you can use, here are 5 screen recorders for Ubuntu you can use:

Note: I’ve tested these screen recording apps on a Parallels virtual machine running Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak.

1. Simple Screen Recorder

Simple Screen Recorder is quite simply one of the best Ubuntu screen recorder apps you can use. The app is easy to use, and will let you quickly record your Ubuntu desktop. If you want to record audio along with the screen, the app has an option to enable that as well. You can choose from a number of audio backends, including PulseAudio, and ALSA.

simple screen recorder

As far as recording options go, you get the option to record the entire screen, choose a segment of the screen, and even have Simple Screen Recorder follow your cursor around as you move it. The app also offers the ability to choose the frame rate at which you want to record the video, along with options for scaling the video, and recording the cursor. The app also offers a variety of formats that you can save the recording into. You can choose from formats such as MKV, MP4, WebM, and others. You can also change the video codec you want the application to use, and set the audio codec, and bitrate as well.

Install Simple Screen Recorder in Ubuntu

Open Terminal (Ctrl + Alt + T), and run the following commands:

[code language=”plain”]sudo add-apt-repository ppa:maarten-baert/simplescreenrecorder
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install simplescreenrecorder[/code]

2. recordMyDesktop

recordMyDesktop is another utility that you can use to record your Ubuntu desktop. The app is very simple to use, but it does offer advanced features for people who might be interested in tweaking those settings. With Record My Desktop, you can simply start recording your desktop, and all the system sounds, without having to worry about the settings.


However, the app does have an “advanced” button, which will let you configure a lot of settings for the screen recording. You can adjust the frame rate for the recording, change the target display (if you have more than one). The app also allows users to enable/disable “on-the-fly encoding“, subsampling, and a lot more. The application can also follow along the user’s cursor while recording, if that setting is enabled.

Install Record My Desktop in Ubuntu

Open Terminal (Ctrl + Alt + T), and run the following command:

[code]sudo apt-get install gtk-recordmydesktop[/code]

3. Vokoscreen

Vokoscreen is another screen recording software for Ubuntu that you can use. The app is easy to use, and the default settings are sane enough to be used directly. If you want more control over the settings for your recording, you can move between the various tabs within the app, and configure settings for the video, audio, as well as enable/disable the webcam, if you have one.


With Vokoscreen, you can configure settings such as the frame rate for the recording, along with choosing the video codec, and the output file format. The app uses MKV as the default, but you can opt for AVI, as well. Vokoscreen also lets you choose the audio codec between libmp3lame, and libvorbis, so you can choose whichever you prefer.

Install Vokoscreen in Ubuntu

Open Terminal (Ctrl + Alt + T), and run the following command:

[code]sudo apt-get install vokoscreen[/code]

4. Screen Recording with FFmpeg

If you’re comfortable with using the command line, you can even use FFmpeg to record your Ubuntu desktop. FFmpeg is also capable of recording audio, using ALSA. The best part about using FFmpeg to record your desktop, is that you can configure it endlessly, and make it perfect for your use case. Also, FFmpeg comes pre-installed on Linux distros like Ubuntu, which means that you don’t need to install anything extra on your system.

To record your screen using FFmpeg, you can use the command below:

  • ffmpeg -video_size 800×600 -framerate 25 -f x11grab -i :0.0+10,10 output.mp4


When you run this command, FFmpeg will start recording an 800×600 segment of your screen, starting at pixel (10, 10), at 25 frames per second, and save it as “output.mp4” in your current working directory. You can check your working directory with the “pwd” command.

When you want to stop recording, just press “q”, and FFmpeg will stop recording. You can then playback your recording, which will be saved as “output.mp4”.

Note: FFmpeg comes pre-installed in Linux, so you don’t need to install it from any sources.

5. Peek

Peek is a screen recorder for Ubuntu, that converts the screen recordings it takes, into GIF files. The app doesn’t have any advanced configuration options. However, you can adjust the frame rate of the recorded GIF by going to the app’s preferences. You can also set the delay for the app to start recording, after the record button is clicked.


Other than that, the app doesn’t offer any extra configuration options, but it is definitely an easy way to create GIFs from your Ubuntu desktop, and I would recommend that you give it a shot if you want to make GIFs from your screen.

Install Peek in Ubuntu

  • Download the .deb file for Peek, and open it in Software Centre.
  • Click on “Install”, and the app will be installed on your Ubuntu system.

SEE ALSO: 7 Great Ubuntu Application Launchers You Can Use

Easily Record Your Desktop with These Ubuntu Screen Recorder Apps

These were the 5 Ubuntu screen recorder software that I think you should definitely check out for all your screen recording needs. OBS is another very well known screen recording app, but it didn’t work very well for me, during my testing, so I do not recommend it. However, these 5 apps are more than capable of handling whatever you may want to throw at them. So, feel free to try them out (they’re all free), and use the one that suits you best. Also, if you know of any other great screen recording apps for Ubuntu, do let us know about them in the comments section below.

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How to Install Linux on Chromebook (Guide)

Chromebooks are meant to be easy to use, and that is exactly where Chrome OS shines. However, Chrome OS isn’t as functional as compared to other operating systems like Linux. So, if you are someone who loves to tinker, you might have wondered if you could install another operating system, such as Ubuntu, on your Chromebook. So, here is how to install Linux on a Chromebook:

Install Ubuntu on Chromebook with Crouton

In order to install Ubuntu on a Chromebook, you will first have to download Crouton. Crouton – an acronym for “Chromium OS Universal Chroot Environment” – is a bundle of scripts that allow the easy installation of Linux systems such as Ubuntu, and Debian. We will use Crouton to install Ubuntu on our Chromebook. Just follow the steps below:

1. First, you will have to enable Developer Mode in Chrome OS. You can check out our detailed article on the same.

2. Once you have enabled Developer Mode on your Chromebook, download Crouton onto your Chromebook. It will be saved in the “Downloads” directory.

3. On your Chromebook, press “Ctrl + Alt + T” to launch the Crosh Terminal. Here, type “shell“, and hit Enter.

crosh shell

4. You will now get access to a command line, and with the help of this command line, we’ll install Ubuntu on our Chromebook. In the Terminal, type “sudo sh ~/Downloads/crouton -e -t lxde“.

install lxde with crouton

Note: Unfortunately, as of this writing, Ubuntu’s XFCE, and Unity Desktop Environments aren’t working properly on Chromebooks, which is why I would suggest that you use LXDE for the time being.

5. Once that is done, you will have to wait, while Crouton downloads Ubuntu for you, and installs it on your Chromebook. This step usually takes quite some time, so be patient.

installing Ubuntu Chromebook

6. When the installation is finished, simply type “sudo startlxde” to start the Linux desktop. You will be asked for the encryption passphrase you created while installing Ubuntu, just key it in, and you’re ready to go.


Switch Back to Chrome OS from Linux

If you want to get back to Chrome OS from Ubuntu, you can simply log out of Ubuntu in the normal way, and you’ll immediately be taken back to Chrome OS.

You can restart Linux, by opening a terminal (Ctrl + Alt + T), and typing “sudo startlxde“.

You should be able to switch between Linux, and Chrome OS, on the fly, by using Ctrl + Alt + Shift + Forward, and Ctrl + Alt + Shift + Back (on ARM Chromebooks), and Ctrl + Alt + Forward, and Ctrl + Alt + Back, followed by Ctrl + Alt + Refresh (on Intel Chromebooks), but unfortunately, that didn’t work for me on LXDE on my Asus Chromebook Flip.

Linux on a Chromebook: The Experience

Ubuntu works very well on a Chromebook. However, since the XFCE, and Unity Desktop Environments aren’t working, as yet, you’re stuck with using LXDE – a Desktop Environment not many people like. The only problem I noticed with LXDE, is the fact that if you own a touch enabled Chromebook, like the Asus Chromebook Flip, the touch doesn’t work very predictably in LXDE, and the UI is a tad too small. However, at least the latter can be fixed by adjusting the screen resolution for Linux.

Linux LXDE Chromebook

Overall, though, the experience is very smooth, and everything works as one would expect. So, if you’re wondering if it’s worth the effort, it kind of is.

SEE ALSO: How to Get Play Store On Chromebook Via Developer Channel

Install Linux on Chromebook to Unlock Its Potential

You can use this method to easily install Linux/Ubuntu on a Chromebook, and unlock its true power. When you’re running Linux on a Chromebook, you can install Linux apps in the same way as you would install them on a normal Linux computer, by using apt-get. However, if you’re using an ARM Chromebook, some apps might not work properly for you. Chances of apps working are much better on an Chromebook with an Intel processor.

As always, we’d like to know your thoughts on installing Linux on Chromebook, and your experience with using Linux on a Chromebook. Also, if you know of another (preferably easier) method to install Linux on Chromebooks, do let us know in the comments section below.

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15 Best Terminal Emulators for Linux

Have you noticed that articles about Linux terminal emulators usually say something like “the terminal is not scary”? Well, they’re not wrong. The terminal emulator is just an application; there is nothing inherently “scary” about it (the commands you run in it are potentially dangerous). And since it’s an application like any other – say, a music player or a messaging app – you can easily replace it.

As you may already know, the word “terminal” used to refer to actual physical devices. They had a keyboard and a screen, and enabled people to interact with the mainframe computers. These days, our terminal emulators are just software, but we often use the same word – terminal – for them.

linux-terminals-vt100The majority of Linux terminals emulate the functionality of VTxxx devices developed by DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation), but there are emulators for other devices (IBM, HP, ADDM…). Linux terminals are very similar to each other, especially those based on the VTE software library. The difference is mainly in additional options that you can enable to improve your workflow.

While most people will be happy with the default terminal provided by their Linux distribution, some might want to switch things up. If you’re feeling adventurous, here are 15 best Linux terminal emulators perfectly capable of replacing your current one:

1. AltYo

Great if you want: a drop-down terminal with many tab management options

linux-terminals-altyoAltYo doesn’t have a lot of dependencies, but it has plenty of tab-related settings. You can work with multiple tabs, rearrange them, modify their titles, or lock them to prevent accidental closing. Since it’s a drop-down terminal, it slides smoothly from the edge of your screen, but it will also work well with tiling window managers.

AltYo can automatically open apps in new tabs once you launch it, or even make them autostart with your Linux desktop. Beginners will be happy to hear that AltYo has an uncomplicated settings dialog, so they don’t have to edit any configuration files. Conversely, those who wish to tinker behind the scenes can customize AltYo with CSS.


2. Kitty

Great if you want: a modern terminal optimized for speed

linux-terminals-kittyKitty has a smart feature that’s relatively uncommon among Linux terminal emulators – OpenGL rendering. Instead of taxing the CPU, it relies on the graphics card for faster and smoother output.

You can open multiple instances of Kitty and organize them neatly in one container. Several tiling layouts are supported, and you can even save a layout (with all running apps and commands) as a session and load it at any time.


3. Extraterm

Great if you want: advanced options for managing command output

linux-terminals-extratermThe award for the coolest feature goes to Extraterm’s command frames. Extraterm places the output of Linux commands into color-coded frames – blue for successful, red for failed commands. You can quickly delete the output of a command by clicking the X icon, or open it in a separate tab within Extraterm. If you switch to Selection Mode, you can edit the output of each frame.

linux-terminals-extraterm-framesOther helpful features include from and show commands. The first one lets you use the output of a previous command as input for the next one. The show command displays the contents of a file in the terminal window, and image files are supported, too.


4. Urxvt

Great if you want: extensibility and speed

linux-terminals-urxvtUrxvt stands for rxvt-unicode, which hints at the origin of this terminal emulator. It is a fork of rxvt with support for Unicode – an encoding standard that makes it possible to represent various writing systems and characters in files and applications.

Urxvt also supports custom line height and letter spacing for better readability. You can use urxvt in server-client mode, where it runs as a background process (server) to save memory and to open new urxvt windows (clients) much faster.

If Perl is your favorite programming language, then urxvt might be your favorite Linux terminal emulator. There are quite a few Perl extensions for uxrvt that you can enable to introduce features like tabs, clickable URLs, and clipboard management. Of course, you can try your hand at writing custom extensions.


5. Xfce Terminal

Great if you want: a beginner-friendly terminal with optional drop-down mode

linux-terminals-xfce-terminal-optionsXfce Terminal is a beginners’ favorite because it’s easy to customize through simple dialogs. It offers the standard features you’d expect from a Linux terminal, plus a few cool extras.

You can drag-and-drop a file from the file manager into Xfce Terminal and have it display the full path to file. The terminal window background can be transparent, and you can use Xfce Terminal in Compact Mode, which hides window borders, decorations, and toolbars.

The best of all is the optional drop-down mode that makes Xfce Terminal work like other popular drop-down terminals (Guake or Tilda, which is on this list). Make sure to read the official documentation to ensure the drop-down mode is properly set up.


6. Konsole

Great if you want: advanced customization through straightforward dialogs

linux-terminals-konsoleUsing Konsole is like eating at a conveyor belt sushi restaurant. So many delicious details laid out in front of you to pick whichever you want…yet staring at them for too long might make your head spin. Where do we even begin?

Let’s start by creating a profile. Konsole lets you switch between profiles, or even run multiple profiles at once, in different tabs. Every profile has its own appearance and behavior settings, and you can load different shells in separate Konsole profiles. A profile can automatically run custom commands and applications when you activate it.

Once you’ve set up profiles, dive into tab management. The Split View option displays contents of several tabs at the same time. To move tabs between Konsole windows, simply use the Clone Tab option, or detach a tab to open it in a new window.

linux-terminals-konsole-settingsOther cool features include Flow Control, which lets you pause command output, and Monitor for Activity/Silence, which tells you what’s happening with commands in Konsole tabs. If you’re disappointed that Konsole doesn’t have a drop-down mode, take a look at Yakuake. It’s based on Konsole and shares many of its features.


7. Gnome Terminal

Great if you want: stability in a familiar interface

linux-terminals-gnome-terminalGnome Terminal is a somewhat lighter counterpart to Konsole in a different desktop environment. Like Konsole, Gnome Terminal supports profiles, and lets you customize everything from cursor shape and color scheme to encoding and Backspace key behavior.

Since Gnome Terminal relies on the VTE library, its feature set is almost identical to other Linux terminals that share the same backend. Therefore, you shouldn’t find it too confusing if you’re switching from MATE Terminal or Pantheon (elementary OS) Terminal.


8. Terminology

Great if you want: practical file previews in the terminal

With Terminology, using the terminal can be fun. File management is made easier thanks to file previews that show up as small pop-ups. You can preview numerous file formats, including images and video files. Terminology automatically recognizes URLs and paths to local files, so you can open them with a mouse click.

If you often work with multiple terminal windows, Terminology can help you organize them by splitting a window into panes. Every pane can contain multiple tabs that you can resize at will. That way you can combine several windows into one. Another way to control Terminology is the Tab Switcher. It displays all terminal windows in a grid, letting you quickly shuffle through them to find the one you need.


9. QTerminal

Great if you want: a drop-down terminal with support for multiplexing

QTerminal is one of those apps that surprise you with how lightweight they are, considering the amount of features they offer. It’s a fast, responsive drop-down terminal that lets you customize nearly everything: from color schemes, fonts and keyboard shortcuts to scrollbar and tab position, transparency, and bookmarks.

Thanks to Multiplexer features, QTerminal can display multiple terminal emulator instances in one window. You can also split the QTerminal application window vertically or horizontally, and easily switch between opened tabs and windows.


10. Termite

Great if you want: a Vim-like workflow that relies heavily on keyboard shortcuts

linux-terminals-termiteAt first glance, Termite is just a simple terminal emulator. If you peek at its configuration file, you’ll find a standard set of options. There’s support for transparency, custom fonts and color schemes, clickable URLs, and custom scrollback size.

But that’s not all! Termite can work in two modes: Insert and Selection, each with its own set of keyboard shortcuts. They are all designed to make you more productive without ever needing to reach for the mouse. This is why Termite is a perfect fit for mouseless workflows in tiling window managers.


Note: There’s another Linux terminal emulator called Termit. Although similar in name, it doesn’t have the same approach as Termite.

11. Mlterm

Great if you want: support for numerous languages and encodings

Most modern terminal emulators support multiple encodings, but few come close to the amount of languages and writing systems supported by Mlterm. It’s a must-have for anyone who wants to use RTL (right-to-left) languages such as Arabic, Hebrew, and Farsi. Encodings for Indic and Dravidian languages – Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada, Punjabi, and more – are also supported.

Special features for vertical writing, double-width and combining characters make it possible to use East Asian, Thai, and Vietnamese scripts. Furthermore, Mlterm supports multiple X Input Method servers, and can automatically detect the necessary encoding for your input.


12. Cool Retro Term

Great if you want: nostalgia-inducing eye candy

As we explained previously, Linux terminal emulators mimic the functionality of now-deprecated physical devices. However, Cool Retro Term takes it a step further and emulates the way they look(ed), too. Now you can turn your entire desktop into a replica of an old CRT monitor and attract curious glances from coworkers and passers-by.

Cool Retro Term comes with several color schemes and effects like screen flickering and scan lines. Although its primary purpose seems to be just eye candy, you can still use Cool Retro Term as any other terminal emulator.


13. Roxterm

Great if you want: a lighter yet featureful alternative to Gnome Terminal

ROXTerm aims to be an advanced alternative to Gnome Terminal, but without the burden of Gnome-related dependencies. In practice, this means you’ll find a lot of familiar features: support for keyboard shortcuts, color schemes, user profiles, and session saving.

Apart from that, ROXTerm has a practical pop-up menu that lets you hide the menu bar and maximize screen space. Furthermore, ROXTerm can recognize file paths, SSH hostnames, email addresses, and web URLs. You can either click them to open/access the destination, or press Ctrl and drag the link into another application.

Speaking of dragging, it’s also possible to drag-and-drop text and files into the ROXTerm application window. Text gets pasted into the terminal, while files show up as a path that you can manipulate further.


14. Tilda

Great if you want: a drop-down terminal with a decent amount of options

A well-known drop-down terminal, Tilda is full of great options that are easy to tweak in the Config dialogs. You can experiment with auto-hiding and focus, or make Tilda cover all other windows on the desktop. Tilda can be transparent, and you can adjust where it shows up on the screen.

Keyboard shortcuts make tab navigation easier, and to make sure you don’t miss anything from a command’s output, you can enable unlimited scrollback. Last but not least, Tilda has a search bar that you can pull up at anytime with a keyboard shortcut. The query can be case-sensitive, and you can also use regular expressions.


15. Terminix

Great if you want: a lightweight terminal with different window layouts

Terminix gives a new meaning to the word “tiling”. By splitting the application window into multiple panes, you can create dozens of layouts for different purposes, save them, and load them when needed. To switch between panes, click them in the sidebar or use keyboard shortcuts.

Optionally, Terminix can run as a drop-down terminal – configure this in the Preferences > Quake dialog. There’s also the option to turn on desktop notifications for completed processes.

Automatic Profile Switching is perhaps the most practical feature. Based on your user profile settings, it will change the behavior and look of Terminix when it detects changes in the current username, hostname, or directory. Keep in mind, however, that Terminix only has a 64-bit version for now.


SEE ALSO: 10 Linux Markdown Editors You Should Try

The Best Terminal Emulators for Linux!

Although this is already a long list, there are even more terminal emulators for Linux. Some stick to the basics and sport a traditional approach. Others, like the (discontinued) Cyborg Terminal project, go for something completely different and unexpected.

As always, the choice is up to you, so pick a terminal that suits your level of experience. With so many terminal emulators striving to be more user-friendly and easier to customize, even complete Linux beginners shouldn’t have trouble choosing – and using – one.

What do you look for in a terminal emulator? Which one is your favorite? Can you recommend some other terminal emulators for Linux? Let us know in the comments!

Image Credits: DEC VT100 Terminal by Wolfgang Stief via Flickr; Featured image source.

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10 Linux Markdown Editors You Should Try

Why do so many people stick to plain text documents for their notes and to-dos when we have all those fancy apps at our disposal? Well, sometimes the simplest solution is the best one. Markdown fits nicely into this philosophy, and there are many Linux Markdown tools you can use if you want to follow it.

linux-markdown-editors-featuredBut what is Markdown, anyway? In short, it’s a markup language that lets you format text documents without the need for complex software like word processors.

When writing in Markdown, you use symbols like * and # to add structure to your document and emphasize parts of text. You can insert links, footnotes, quotes, code blocks, and lists, create tables, and write math formulas. Compared to HTML, Markdown looks much cleaner and more readable even when viewed in a basic text editor:

linux-markdown-editors-comparisonThis makes Markdown easier to learn than most markup languages. If you’ve ever posted anything on Reddit, you’ve used Markdown. You can also use it in WordPress, Tumblr, Squarespace and a few other blogging platforms to format your posts. Many software developers write documentation in Markdown, and you’ll also find it in various online forums. If you don’t have any experience with Markdown, start by reading this handy cheatsheet.

The plain and portable nature of Markdown allows you to modify your files in any text editor. However, to actually see what the formatting looks like, you’ll need a Markdown editor that can interpret the markup syntax. In other words, the app will translate your formatting instructions into a fully formatted text.

Does this sound like something you’d want to try? Would you like to create Markdown documents on Linux? Say no more. Here are ten great Linux Markdown editors to choose from.

1. CuteMarkEd

linux-markdown-editors-cutemarkedCuteMarkEd is a powerful Linux Markdown editor. Why powerful? Because of its extra features. Apart from the essentials such as live Markdown preview and syntax highlighting, CuteMarkEd has a spell checker, a file explorer, and a dialogue that helps you insert tables.

On top of that, CuteMarkEd displays a word and character count as you type, lets you export Markdown files to PDF and HTML, and makes it possible to write math formulas.


2. LightMdEditor

linux-markdown-editors-lightmdeditorA versatile interface makes LightMdEditor stand out. All Markdown formatting options are just a click away, in the toolbar, or you can apply them from the Edit menu. There are plenty of handy keyboard shortcuts, and you can define custom ones, too.

LightMdEditor makes it easy to insert images into Markdown documents and supports multiple tabs, so you can work on several files at once. The application window can be split vertically or horizontally, and you can also toggle a Table of Contents for every file. Finally, the interface can be transformed into one of two modes – Focus and Full Screen – for maximum productivity.


3. ReText

linux-markdown-editors-retextReText is a good choice if you need to convert your Markdown files into other file formats. It can export to PDF, ODT, and HTML, plus it supports the reStructuredText markup language.

Other than that, it’s a well-equipped Linux Markdown editor with support for tabs, math formulas, and live preview. You can enable line numbers and highlight the current line, autosave documents, and insert special symbols from the practical drop-down menu.


4. Ghostwriter

linux-markdown-editors-ghostwriterBest described as a distraction-free text editor, Ghostwriter keeps everything but text out of the way. This makes it a great Markdown editor for writers who struggle with writer’s block. Real-time word count allows for progress tracking. If Focus Mode doesn’t help, try the Hemingway Mode that prevents you from deleting and endlessly editing your work.

With Ghostwriter you can quickly jump from one heading to another within a document, and highlight the current paragraph, line, or multiple lines. Another cool feature is the option to insert images by simply drag-and-dropping them into the application window.


5. Remarkable

linux-markdown-editors-remarkableRemarkable is a decent Linux Markdown editor with a user-friendly interface; perfect for beginners who might be overwhelmed by other apps on this list. You can customize the live Markdown preview with CSS styles, format text using keyboard shortcuts, hide toolbars and toggle the fullscreen mode, and export Markdown files to PDF and HTML.

Two relatively small things make Remarkable efficient: it automatically converts links to hypertext and shows inserted images in the live preview.


6. MarkMyWords

linux-markdown-editors-markmywordsMarkMyWords supports live Markdown preview with images and lets you export files to PDF and HTML. You can switch on line numbers and syntax highlighting, as well as modify the interface with themes and stylesheets.

Since it’s so simple, this editor can serve as a playground for learning Markdown, or as a lighter alternative to the previously mentioned Remarkable.


7. Moeditor

linux-markdown-editors-moeditorMoeditor looks beautiful, but comes in a huge package because it’s built with Electron. If this doesn’t discourage you from using Moeditor, you’ll be rewarded with an app that supports syntax highlighting, custom line height and font size, live preview mode, and math formulas.


8. Mango

linux-markdown-editors-mangoMango offers the same features as Moeditor with a splash of color. Code highlighting and support for LaTeX expressions count as its selling points, but the customizable layout may be the best thing about Mango. Thanks to this feature, you can reorganize the interface to suit your needs.


9. Uncolored

linux-markdown-editors-uncoloredUncolored is a work-in-progress application with an ambitious approach to content creation. Currently Uncolored only works on 64-bit systems. Like the previous two apps, it is built with Web-based technologies. It supports multiple tabs and dozens of keyboard shortcuts and mouse gestures.

You can navigate within a document with the Table of Contents tool, insert emojis, and embed interactive content such as YouTube, Vimeo, and Twitch videos, or even Facebook posts. Text formatting is especially practical, since it’s always accessible via floating icons.


10. Abricotine

linux-markdown-editors-abricotineAbricotine is the most advanced of all Electron-based Markdown editors on our list. Instead of showing the live preview in a separate pane, Abricotine renders it in the text input area. It can create a table of contents for your document, and assist you in editing Markdown tables. Abricotine supports syntax highlighting and comes with several presets for exporting Markdown to HTML.

If your writing usually includes a lot of images, Abricotine can really come in handy. It lets you insert images from URLs, add all images from a folder, and even embed YouTube videos into your Markdown documents.


Use Your Favorite Text Editor

There is a good chance that your favorite Linux text editor supports Markdown, so you don’t have to install yet another new app. In most cases, all you need is a plugin.

linux-markdown-editors-geanyGeany and Gedit offer plugins with live Markdown preview and syntax highlighting. Kate, the KDE text editor, supports Markdown syntax highlighting. Atom has dozens of Markdown-related add-ons that you can install, and Sublime Text employs a similar approach with its Markdown Packages.

linux-markdown-editors-kateThis article would be incomplete without Vim and Emacs. Both text editors have several Markdown plugins that introduce various features: from exporting to LaTeX and realtime preview to syntax highlighting and code folding.

For Emacs:
Markdown Preview
Markdown Mode Plus
Emacs Markdown Mode

For Vim:
Markdown for Vim
Vim Markdown

Create Markdown Documents in the Browser

Another option for those who don’t want a separate Linux Markdown app: simply use the web browser. Web-based Markdown editors are a quick and easy solution. Some require you to stay online, while others work just as well offline.

StackEdit looks minimalistic, but sports a bunch of useful features: spell checker, live preview, Dropbox and Google Drive synchronization, and direct document publishing to GitHub, Tumblr, WordPress, and other services.

linux-markdown-editors-web-stackeditDillinger is another sleek-looking online Markdown editor. Options include exporting your files to PDF and HTML, saving them to Dropbox, GitHub, Medium, Google Drive, and One Drive, as well as autosaving changes.

If you don’t care much about bells and whistles, try Minimalist Online Markdown Editor. To improve the way Firefox displays Markdown documents, consider installing the Markdown Viewer add-on. Chrome users can try the Markdown Preview Plus extension for the same purpose.

Bonus: 5 Advanced Linux Markdown Tools

We hope our round-up of Markdown editors for Linux got you interested, and that you’ll soon start creating your own documents. If you’re already proficient in Markdown, check out these helpful tools:

  • Pandoc is a markup conversion utility with an impressive list of supported file formats. While most Markdown editors support only a couple of formats (usually PDF and HTML), Pandoc lets you convert your Markdown files to DOCX, EPUB, DocBook, OPML, LaTeX, and more. If you don’t want to use it in the terminal, Panconvert is probably the best GUI frontend that will make it easier for you.
  • NoteHub is a pastebin service for Markdown files. You can share your documents with everyone, or protect them with a password.
  • mdp can transform your Markdown documents into slides for a presentation. Since it’s a CLI application, the presentation is displayed in the terminal.
  • Remark is a collection of plugins that can improve your Markdown documents. You can use them to clean up code in Markdown files, remove empty lines and paragraphs, modify headings, links, and images in files, and more.
  • Allmark runs as a web server on your computer and renders Markdown files from a selected folder in your browser. It’s particularly useful if you’re writing an ebook in Markdown, as you can test the navigation and links between different pages.

SEE ALSO: How to Install Linux on Chromebook (Guide)

Now we would like to hear from you. Do you use a Markdown editor on Linux? Did we forget to include your favorite Linux Markdown app? Let us know in the comments!

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6 Best Free Partition Management Software You Can Use

Managing your hard-drive partitions effectively is an important aspect of owning a PC, as that allows people to segregate data based on categories. For instance, you can keep your multimedia files (movies, music etc.) in one partition, your work folders in another, while your programs etc. can be installed on your system drive. Also, if you’re a power-user and use your PC to double or triple-boot into various operating systems, you already know that it’s impossible without dividing your SSD or HDD into smaller partitions. That being the case, we’ve compiled a list of the best free partition software for Windows and Linux to help you manage your hard disk partitions effectively:

Best Free Partition Software in 2019

1. EaseUS Partition Master

EaseUS is one of the very best free partition software in the market today. It gives a host of options to the user, including, create, format, resize, move, split, merge, copy, wipe, check and explore. The reason it is at number one is because it not only works exactly as advertised, but also includes a number of extra features, like a partition recovery option that can recover lost or deleted partitions. It also allows users to convert from FAT to NTFS, primary to logical and vice-versa. The best part? It’s all included in the free version.

I’ve personally used EaseUS Partition Manager myself to partition my hard drives and SSDs for several years, and have found the GUI to be extremely intuitive, and the program itself is also extremely easy to use for anybody with the slightest idea of what they want to do. While the free version offers a comprehensive set of features, you’ll need to upgrade to the ‘Pro’ version if you want to migrate your operating system to a new HDD or SSD. The program is available only on Windows, and is compatible with every version from XP to Windows 10.

Download: (Free, $39.95)
Platform: Windows

2. AOMEI Partition Assistant

AOMEI Partition Assistant is available as a free download without any restrictions, which means you can use it for both personal and commercial use. It offers a wide gamut of features and options for its users, including resize, merge, create, format, split, copy and recover partitions. You can also convert the file system from FAT to NTFS and vice-versa without losing any data in the drive volume(s) in question. The program also allows the MBR to be rebuilt from scratch.

As is to be expected with most of these so-called ‘freemium’ software, some of its most important features of AOMEI Partition Assistant are hidden behind a paywall, including the ability to migrate the operating system to a different HDD or SSD and, convert between primary and logical partitions. The software can also be used to create a bootable Windows disc or flash drive. Called Windows PE Builder, it allows you to setup partitions even without having an operating system installed.

Download: (Free, $49.95)
Platform: Windows

3. MiniTool Partion Wizard V11.5

MiniTool Partition Wizard is yet another free partition manager program that is available for free but packs quite a punch in terms of its features. As you’d expect from most partition management programs, the free version of MiniTool can create, resize, move, delete, format, hide, unhide, split, merge, copy, clone and even recover deleted partitions. What’s more, the program also allows users to rebuild the MBR table and convert file system from FAT to NTFS and vice-versa.

MiniTool is one of the fastest programs in its category and, supports RAID drives, external USB drives and even FireWire disks. The latest version of MinitTool, the V11.5 comes with the excellent new features including Data Recovery, Disk Benchmark, Space Analyzer, along with some bug fixes which makes it even better. The Disk Benchmark feature allows users to measure the read and write speeds under various disk access scenarios like sequential and random. The Space Analyzer feature is great for finding out what is taking up space on your system so you can delete unnecessary files to release some storage. Finally, the new V11.5 also adds support for two new languages; Korean and Italian.

Disk Benchmark

The program is also compatible with Linux ext2/ext3 file types. There’s also an optional “enhanced data protection mode” that you can turn on while modifying your disk partitions so as to protect the data in those partitions in case of a power failure during an operation. Like EaseUS, MiniTool also offers the OS migration feature, but only in its Pro version (and above) that starts at $39.

Download: (Free, $39.00)
Platform: Windows

4. Paragon Partition Manager

Like most of the other programs on the list, Paragon Partition Manager also allows users users to create, format, resize, delete, hide and copy partitions. It also allows users to convert disk partition type from MBR to GPT and vice-versa. While the free version of Paragon Partition Master offers a comprehensive list of features, you’ll need to buy the Pro version if you want additional features, like merge partitions, convert NTFS to FAT32, change cluster size and convert dynamic disk to basic.

Paragon Partition Magic also supports GPT/UEFI configurations, and works with Apple’s HFS+ file system. While we haven’t checked out the paid version of the software, the free version isn’t really as feature-rich as some of the aforementioned options. Sure, it gets the job done swiftly and effectively, but unless you’re willing to pay for the premium versions, you’ll miss out on a few features that you will otherwise get in some of the other free programs on the list.

Download: (Free, $39.95)
Platform: Windows

5. GParted

GParted is a powerful, free and open-source (FOSS) partition editor for Linux-based systems, but can also be used on Macs or Windows PCs by booting from GParted Live. The software not only allows users to create, resize, delete, move and copy partitions on a hard disk, but also to create a partition table and enable or disable partition flags. As expected from a program meant to be run on Linux, GParted supports ext2, ext3 and ext4 alongside NTFS, FAT16, FAT32 and many other file systems.

In case you’re apprehensive about using an app meant for Linux-based systems to manage your NTFS partitions, don’t be. The program works very well with NTFS because of the Linux NTFS-3G NTFS filesystem driver that allows programs like GParted to work with Windows volumes without any data loss. Being a FOSS software, it is also completely free irrespective of your use case. However, if you’re a total novice to disk management, you may find the UI not as intuitive as the commercial solutions mentioned in this list.

Download: (Free)
Platform: Linux

6. Macrorit Disk Partition Expert

Macrorit Disk Partition Expert is by far the easiest to use when compared to the rest of the programs on this list. While it offers users the usual features that are expected from standard disk management programs, it also comes with a few features that are a little less common. First off, it offers a portable version, so you can actually use it without having to install it on your PC. Secondly, the program first applies the changes virtually to let you see their effects before actually going through with the changes for real. You’ll have to hit the ‘Commit’ button to actually go through with the action once you’re happy with what you see. Also, like MiniTool Partition Wizard, Macrorit also has “power-off protection and data disaster recovery”, which prevents loss of data in case of power outage during the partitioning/merging/deleting or any other process.

For all its innovative features, Macrorit lacks a few important features that can be found on some of the other software mentioned on this list. One of the most important features missing from the software is the ability to migrate the operating system. While it’s not really a big deal if you’re looking to use the free version of the program (because none of the others offer it in their free editions either), if you want a full-featured suite and are ready to pay for it, there are other, more feature-rich options available in the market, although, they do cost a bit more than this one.

Download: (Free, $29.99)
Platform: Windows

Bonus: Windows Disk Management

A lot of people don’t realize this, but Windows already comes with a built-in disk management program called, well, “Disk Management”. The tool can be accessed by using the ‘diskmgmt.msc’ command or by searching for ‘Disk Management’ on the Start Menu search panel, and, gives users quite a few options to manage hard disks and the volumes or partitions that they contain. Users can initialize disks, create volumes, assign drive letters and format drives with the utility. As is to be expected, it supports both FAT and NTFS file systems, and can extend, shrink, merge or even delete partitions.

Microsoft first introduced the disk management utility in Windows 2000, and it can be found in all subsequent Windows editions right up to Windows 10. While the initial versions of the program were quite limited in what they could do, Microsoft has added a few new features to the utility over the course of time, and it is now a quite capable disk management tool. However, it still lacks many of the essential features that most of the free third-party programs come with, but if you’re looking for something really basic, chances are, the built-in Windows utility will be enough for your needs.

SEE ALSO: Best Free Backup Software for Windows

The Best Free Partition Software for Your Computer

As you can see from our list above, there’s a whole host of programs to manage hard disk partitions, and most of them offer a very similar set of features. While the paid versions come with extra bells and whistles, the free editions should do just fine for most users. So, do you use any of the above software to manage your HDD or SSD partitions, or do you want to recommend something else that offers more features in its free version? Do let us know by leaving your thoughts in the comment section below because we love hearing from you.

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How to Use iPhone with Linux (Guide)

iPhones are, by definition, restricted to sync with iTunes. That is, unless you jailbreak them. While I personally have no issue with this, the fact remains that Apple has, for some reason, not put out an iTunes client for Linux distros. This can be a huge headache for iPhone users who want to use a Linux desktop, because it’s not possible to sync iPhones with Linux distros like Ubuntu. So, if you’re wondering how you can use an iPhone with Linux, here is a complete guide that might help you:

Understanding the Problem

The main problem, with using an iPhone with a Linux system, is the fact that you just can’t sync it. iTunes is the only software that a non-jailbroken iPhone will sync with, and it is not available for any Linux platforms, yet. There are a number of libraries such as “libimobiledevice” that tried to let users sync iPhones with Linux, but not only is it a hassle to get it running, it doesn’t work for iOS 10. So if you have an iPhone, and you’re using a Linux system as your daily driver, you’re kind of out of luck.

How about some Wine

Wine (which is a recursive acronym for Wine Is Not an Emulator) is a compatibility layer application that can allow a user to run Windows apps on a Linux system (most of the time). So my first attempt at using an iPhone with Linux was to run iTunes with Wine. I used PlayOnLinux as the front-end for the software, and then I found out, that Wine will not allow for USB passthrough, so there’s no way that an iPhone will sync with it. You could still use iTunes for everything else, including managing your iCloud Music Library, but if it doesn’t sync with an iPhone, there’s really no use for it. Which brings us to a workaround of sorts.

OwnCloud and XAMPP for Transferring Files Between Linux and iPhone

The first problem that we’ll tackle, is somehow enabling the transfer of files, and documents between an iPhone and a Linux desktop. To do this, you can use something like OwnCloud, along with XAMPP on your Linux system.

  • OwnCloud is a self-hosted cloud server that you can access on your iPhone. It comes with a free plan, and is pretty much the best way to be able to transfer documents between your iPhone and a Linux desktop. However, OwnCloud requires a server to run on, in the first place, which is where XAMPP steps in.
  • XAMPP is an easy way to get a LAMP server running on your Linux, Mac, or Windows system. Just be careful that you install a version of XAMPP running at least PHP 5.4, because OwnCloud will not work on anything below that.

Now that we’ve cleared all that out, let’s get started with installing OwnCloud, and XAMPP on our system. I’m using a machine running Ubuntu 16.10 Yakkety Yak to do this, and the process should be similar for most other systems.

Installing XAMPP on Ubuntu 16.10

We’ll install XAMPP first, and set up a folder where we can keep the OwnCloud files. To do this, just follow the steps below:

  • Download the XAMPP installer from the official website. It will be in the form of a .run file.

download xampp

  • Once you’ve downloaded it, launch the Terminal, and cd into the Downloads directory with the “cd Downloads” command. If you downloaded the installer to a different directory, just use the name of that directory in place of “Downloads”. Also, make sure you use proper capitalization, or the command will fail.

cd into downloads

  • Here, we’ll first give the installer permissions to execute. In the Terminal, run the command “chmod +x“.

give xampp installer permissions to execute

Note: The name of the installer may be different. Just use the exact name of the installer. You can type “chmod +x xampp”, and press the “tab” key to autocomplete the name.

  • Now, we will execute the installer, with root permissions using the command “sudo ./“. You will be asked for your password. Type it in (it will not be displayed, even as asterisks), and hit Enter.

execute the xampp installer

  • The installer will then run, and you simply have to follow the instructions in the installer to install XAMPP on your system. It is installed in the “/opt/” directory.

xampp installer

Creating a Folder to Place the OwnCloud Files for XAMPP

Now that XAMPP is installed, we need a folder we can place the OwnCloud files, so that XAMPP can run it. There’s a folder called htdocs, where you can place the websites that you want XAMPP to be able to run, and it is present at “/opt/lampp/htdocs”. We’ll not place the OwnCloud files inside the “opt” directory, though. Just follow the steps below:

  • In Terminal, navigate to the home folder with “cd ~“, or just “cd“.

navigate to home directory

  • Now, make a folder called “public_html” here, with the command “mkdir public_html“.

make public html folder inside home directory

  • Next, we will give read/write access to everyone for the “public_html” folder with the command “sudo chmod 777 -R public_html“.

give read write permissions to public html folder

  • Now, use the command “cd /opt/lampp/htdocs“, to navigate into the htdocs folder.

cd to opt lampp htdocs folder

  • Here, just run the command “sudo ln -s /home/username/public_html ./username“. Replace “username” with your Username in Linux. In my case, the username is “akshay”, so the command I’m using is “sudo ln -s /home/akshay/public_html ./akshay”.

create symbolic link

Your “public_html” folder is now ready to host files for XAMPP to run. Let’s install OwnCloud now.

Installing OwnCloud on Ubuntu 16.10

  • Download the ZIP file for OwnCloud from their official website.

download owncloud

  • Extract this into the “public_html” folder you created while setting up XAMPP.

Running OwnCloud on XAMPP in Ubuntu 16.10

You can now run OwnCloud on your Ubuntu 16.10 system, with XAMPP. Just follow the steps below:

  • In Terminal, run the command “sudo /opt/lampp/lampp start“. This will start the XAMPP server on your system.

start xampp lampp server

  • Now, in your browser, just navigate to “http://localhost/username/owncloud”. Replace “username” with your username. In my case the address is “http://localhost/akshay/owncloud“.

go to localhost url for owncloud

  • You will be presented with a screen where you’ll have to create your admin username, and password. Simply choose whatever you want to use as your login credentials.

main interface owncloud

Note: If you encounter an error that OwnCloud could not write data, just launch Terminal, and run the command “sudo chmod 777 /home/username/public_html/owncloud”. Replace “username” with your username.

  • Once you sign in, you’ll be taken to the main OwnCloud interface. This is where you can upload, delete, and otherwise manage all your files.

home screen

Connecting to OwnCloud from iPhone

So you’ve uploaded all the files you want to be able to access on your iPhone, to your OwnCloud server. There’s still the matter of actually connecting your iPhone to OwnCloud before you can actually transfer files between the devices. To do this, you’ll have to allow the config file for OwnCloud to allow access using the IP address of your computer.

Editing the OwnCloud config File

Editing the OwnCloud config is easy, just follow the steps below:

  • In Terminal, navigate to the OwnCloud config folder, using “cd /home/username/public_html/owncloud/config“.

cd to owncloud config directory

  • Here, run the command “sudo nano config.php“. This will open up the config file inside Terminal, ready to be edited.

open config php in su nano

  • Simply locate the line that says “trusted_domains“. You will see “localhost” already added there. Create a new line after “localhost”, and type the IP address of your computer inside single quotes. The edited “trusted_domains” section should look something like this:

    [php]’trusted_domains’ =>
    array (

editing trusted domains in config php

Connecting iPhone to OwnCloud

Connecting your iPhone to your OwnCloud server is easy, and can be done in one of two ways. We’ll discuss both of them here, and you can use the one that suits you better.

1. Connecting from iPhone to OwnCloud with Safari

To connect your iPhone to your OwnCloud server, just follow the steps below:

  • Launch Safari on your iPhone, and in the address bar, navigate to “http://ipaddress/username/owncloud/“. Obviously, replace “ipaddress” with the IP address of your computer, and “username” with your username.

navigate to owncloud server safari

  • You will be presented with a login screen. Use the credentials you created while setting up OwnCloud to log in. Once you do this, you will be shown all the files and folders present on your OwnCloud server. You can browse the files, and download any files that you want.

connect to owncloud server iphone safari

2. Connecting from iPhone to OwnCloud with a WebDAV client

OwnCloud supports WebDAV to transfer files, and if you have an app (like Documents 5 by Readdle), that can connect to WebDAV servers, you can easily access your OwnCloud server with it. There are quite a number of iPhone file managers that support WebDAV, and you can use any one of them to connect to OwnCloud. I’m using Documents 5.

  • Launch Documents 5 on your iPhone, and tap on the icon that says “Services“. Here, tap on “Add Account“.

connect webdav step 1

  • Choose “WebDAV Server” from the list, and enter a name for the server, along with the URL “http://ipaddress/username/owncloud/remote.php/webdav/“. Enter your OwnCloud username and password, as well.

connect webdav step 2

  • Once you’re done, just tap on “Save“, and Documents will connect to your OwnCloud server. You will then be able to view (and download) all the files available on your OwnCloud server.

connect webdav step 3

Note: If you use DHCP (you probably do), chances are, your computer’s IP address will keep changing, and you will have to manually edit the config file everytime it happens. It’s better if you assign a static IP address to your computer, so you only have to edit the config file once.

Google Play Music to Manage Music between Linux and iPhone

Since we’re out of luck with iTunes on Linux, we’ll have to turn to other options. One of these options is Google Play Music. The music service will allow you to upload your music to the cloud, and you can access on your iPhone with the official Google Play Music app. With this, we’re completely bidding adieu to iTunes. So, let’s see how to get this done.

Using Google Music Manager to Upload Music on Google Play Music

The first thing we’ll have to do, before accessing our music on our iPhone, is uploading our music library on the Google Play Music website. To do this, we’ll need to install Google Music Manager. This can be done easily by following the steps given below:

  • Download the Google Music Manager client from the official website. It is downloaded a s .deb package in Ubuntu, and will directly open in the Software Center, and you can install it.
  • From your Application launcher, look for Google Music Manager, and launch it.

google music manager 1

  • Follow the steps to get Music Manager set up, and running. Once everything is done, your music library will be automatically uploaded to your Google Play Music library.

google music manager library folders

  • Once your songs have uploaded (it may take time, depending on the size of your library), you can launch the Google Play Music app on your iPhone (download), and sign in with your Google account. You’ll find your music right there.

google play music sync with iphone

In the future, you just have to put your new music files in your Music folder in Linux, and Google Music Manager will automatically upload it to the Google Play Music library, so you can access it on your iPhone, and any other device you have Google Play Music installed on.

SEE ALSO: How to Install Linux on Chromebook (Guide)

Use your iOS device with Linux with these services

You can manage everything on your iPhone or even iPad with Linux, using the services I have mentioned in this article. Plus, all of these services have a free tier available that you can use. Google Play Music offers a free plan that will let you upload up to 50,000 songs on the cloud, and OwnCloud allows you to host your own server, which means that you don’t need to pay them anything. Obviously, this is nowhere as easy as using iTunes to sync an iPhone – a process that just works – but, this is the closest you can come to using an iPhone with Linux.

As always, do share your thoughts on using an iPhone with Linux, and if you have any queries, do let us know in the comments section below.

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8 Best Sketch Alternatives for Windows and Linux in 2019

Sketch is a modern graphics design app for macOS that took the world by storm after its release in 2010. It is now the staple for the web, mobile, UI / UX and icon design. The app is universally loved and has very few direct competitors, but unfortunately, due to the technologies exclusive to macOS that it relies on, the developers are not considering releasing it on Windows and Linux. While a good number of graphics designers use Macs, many do not, and thus, Sketch’s Mac exclusivity becomes a problem. So, if you are primarily a Windows or Linux user, here are the 8 best Sketch alternatives for Windows and Linux that you can use in 2019.

Best Sketch Alternatives for Windows and Linux in 2019

1. Figma

Figma is one of the best Sketch alternatives for Windows and it brings a robust and powerful UI/UX designing tool. The tool is browser based which comes with its own advantages and disadvantages. The advantage of being a browser-based tool is that you can use it on any operating system including Windows, Linux, and macOS. Also, you won’t have to download any software or patch or update it as everything happens in the background. On the flip side, you will need a constant internet connection to use its web app. Recently, the company has also launched native apps for Windows and macOS platforms, however, there’s still no app for Linux users.

2. Figma

The UI of Figma is very much like Sketch so you will find yourself right at home. Coming to its features, Figma brings feature-rich prototyping tool which allows you to quickly create beautiful prototypes and allows you to share them with your client with just one click. Its pen tool is very powerful and uses vector networks. It also supports 60 FPS interactive editing with pixel-perfect previews and export. Another benefit of Figma is that all your work is automatically synced to the cloud with specific version history so you don’t have to worry about saving or uploading your files.

Figma also works great for teams. There’s a shared team library where all the assets are shared across the team members so they all have access to the same assets at all the time. That said, this feature is reserved for professional users only. Figma has received a ton of praise from designers across the board and you should definitely check it out.

Availability: Windows, macOS, and Web (Free, $12/month)

2. Adobe XD

Adobe is a giant in the creative industry and seems to offer a tool for all the creative needs. Similar to all of its other popular creating apps, Adobe XD is a powerful tool which can easily replace the Sketch app for Windows users. The app offers powerful UI and UX designing tools which can help you go from wireframing to prototyping. The app also brings familiar user interface and if you have ever used Sketch or any other such app in the past, you will find Adobe XD quite easy to get used to.

1. Adobe XD

Adobe CD brings a plethora of features including fast and versatile artboards, modern and contextual layers panel, support for Illustrator and PSD files, interactive transitions, drag and drop controls, zero lag time while interacting with the canvas, and more. One of the biggest benefits of Adobe XD is that it also comes with mobile apps which allows you to preview files on your smartphone. This means you will be able to see exactly how your designs look on a smartphone without having to code it. Other features of Adobe XD include voice prototyping, responsive resizing, auto-animate, and more. If you are looking for the best Sketch alternatives it should be on your list.

Availability: Windows, macOS (Free, $9.99/month)

3. Affinity Designer

The Apple Design Award winning vector editor Affinity Designer was originally created as an alternative for Adobe Illustrator. That, however, does not negate the fact that depending on the use case, it is one of the best Sketch alternatives on the market. I have been a long time user of Affinity Designer on Mac and I am happy to report that the Windows version is no different than the Mac version when it comes to features. That means you are not essentially sacrificing on any feature if you are buying it for your Windows machine. Affinity Designer brings in robust pen and node tools allowing users to create what they want with just a few clicks.

Affinity Designer

The software also supports custom keyboard shortcuts so you can customize how the app works according to your needs. Other features of Designer include tool and mode switching support, support for multiple artboards, symbols panel, constraints for UI design, corner and pencil tool, and more. Another benefit of Affinity Designer is that you when you buy it, you get “Grade UI Kit” for free which brings over 1000 customizable elements, icons, panels. and buttons. While the software is not as powerful as Sketch when it comes to UI/UX design, it is a worthy alternative for Windows users.

Availability: Windows / macOS ($49.99)

4. Vectr

Vectr is a free graphics designing tool which can be used to create graphics easily and intuitively. The app doesn’t come with a massive learning curve and anyone including beginners can get up and running with the software quite easily. Vectr also comes with both written and video tutorials which is a great place to start if you are just starting your design journey. Like Figma, Vectr can either be used online in a browser or using its native apps which are available for both Linux and Windows devices.

3. Vector

Apart from the normal UI/UX designing features which you can expect from such a software, Vectr brings a ton of other cool features. My favorite is the real-time collaboration link feature. The feature basically allows you to send a link to the project you are working on to other Vectr users so that you both can work on the same project in real time. Also, all your work is automatically uploaded and saved to the cloud so you don’ have to worry about any of that. While Vectr is not as powerful as some of the other tools on this list if you are looking for an easy to use alternative for Sketch which can help you get started, this is the app for you.

Availability: Windows, Linux, and Web (Free)

5. Adobe Illustrator

Adobe Illustrator is easily the most well-known and feature-rich vector graphics editor in the world. From logos, icons, mobile and web design to sketching, print design and typography, Illustrator lets you do it all. Just like most other Adobe titles, the community for guides, tutorials and resources, both free and paid is enormous.


Some of the features include perspective drawing tools, shaper tool, live shapes, dynamic symbols, smart guides, multiple artboards, transparency in gradients, and live gradient editing. Using Illustrator through the Creative Cloud also brings additional features such as cloud syncing, which lets you access your designs from anywhere, companion apps for Android and iOS, and access to Adobe’s collection of millions of royalty-free images, graphics and videos.

While Illustrator is great for digital illustrations (hence the name), and general-purpose vector design, it does not have a workflow for product and interface / UX design. It is certainly doable, but lacks the versatility of Sketch in this department.

Availability: Windows, macOS (Free 7-day trial; $19.99/mo with Creative Cloud)

6. Gravit Designer

Gravit Designer has evolved a lot over the past few years and has become the best free and open source Sketch alternative for both Windows and Linux users. First of all, now the app not only works on the web but also offers native applications for all the three major desktop platforms including macOS, Windows, and Linux. That is a huge update as now users don’t have to rely on browsers to get the work done as they can use the native apps which feel much more at home and are normally faster than the web app. Talking about the features Gravit not only includes tools for screen design, interface design, vector graphics, and logo creation but it also allows users to create high-quality icons, presentation, and illustrations.

gravita designer

It comes loaded with preset canvas sizes, over 29,000 icons, more than 1,000 stock photos, a curated list of Google web fonts and a community marketplace where you can purchase assets for your projects. Another benefit of using Gravit Designer is that it keeps everything in sync with the cloud. Also, now you don’t need a constant internet connection to use this app as it can work offline and the changes you made are automatically synced when you go online. The new app also brings a clean UI which adjust itself according to your needs. Overall, Gravit is an excellent app and is better than most of the paid apps out there. It’s definitely one of the best Sketch alternatives that you will find on the market right now.

Availability: Windows, Linux, macOS, and Web (Free)

7. Inkscape

The venerable open-source tool Inkscape is a general purpose vector graphics editor. While it is neither as feature-rich, nor as powerful as Sketch, it makes up for the shortcomings by being cross-platform and extremely lightweight. It has support for importing the greatest number of file formats, including Illustrator, CorelDRAW, Microsoft Visio and Sketch (using an extension).


Inkscape packs in features such as flexible drawing tools, including a pencil tool for freehand drawing, a pen tool for creating Bézier curves and straight lines, a text tool, and other powerful tools for illustrations, web design, and general vector image editing. Due to it being free and cross-platform, it is a great tool for students, people with older computers, and beginners to vector graphic design.

Availability: Windows, Linux, macOS (Free)

8. Xara Designer Pro

Xara Designer Pro is one of the most comprehensive solutions for graphics design. Other than basic support for vector design, it has tools for illustrations, web design, photo editing and more. Some of the advanced features include Live Effects, non-destructive photo handling, vector masking, layer blending, website creation tools, and support for PDF and PSD file formats.


Compared to the UI / UX design bent of Sketch, Xara is a more of a general-purpose graphic design application, offering something for nearly everyone. It is also much more conductive towards web design. If all you need is basic raster and vector image editing, Xara is overkill for you, both in scope and in price. Fortunately, you can choose to buy only the Graphic Design, or Web Design components separately.

Note: During installation, Xara offered to install a “PC cleaner” app called Simplyclean, marked to be installed by default. This qualifies as bloatware and is simply unacceptable for a program of Designer Pro’s repute and price.

Designer Pro: Windows ($299 with Free 7-day trial)
Photo & Graphic Designer: Windows ($89.99 with Free 7-day trial)
Web Designer Premium: Windows ($99.99 with Free 7-day trial)

SEE ALSO: 8 Best AirDrop Alternatives for Windows to Share Files Easily in 2019

Design Your Next Project with These Sketch Alternatives

We hope you found these Sketch alternatives for Windows and Linux useful. Although Sketch’s capabilities and workflow for UI and UX design are unrivaled so far outside of the macOS ecosystem, things are not so bad in general vector and raster graphics editing. Even in the interface design domain, things are looking up with the imminent release of Adobe’s Experience Design for Windows. Did you like these Sketch alternatives? Have more to share? Let us know by dropping us a line in the comments section below.

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12 Best Mi 8 SE Features and Tricks That You Should Know

A few weeks back, we published an exclusive news informing our readers that the Xiaomi Mi 8 SE will be coming to India, albeit with a new name, the Mi 8i. While Indian consumers have to wait a few more weeks before they can get their hands on the device, we had the privilege of flying to China and acquiring the device for ourselves. Now that we have had some time to play with the device, we wanted to share our experience with you. So, if you are interested in the new Xiaomi Mi 8 SE and are eagerly waiting for it, here are the 12 best Mi 8 SE features and tricks that will make you want it even more:

Best Mi 8 SE Features and Tricks

1. Gestures

It seems that for smartphones, 2018 is the year of gestures, notches, and face unlock, and Xiaomi Mi 8 SE is bringing them all. Let’s start with gestures as the gestures on the Mi 8 SE is one of the best I have ever used on any Android smartphone. While Xiaomi will give you an option to use either gestures or buttons when you are setting up the device for the first time, you can change it later by going into the Settings. If you want to enable gestures in your Mi 8 SE, go to Settings -> Full screen display and tap on the “Full screen gestures” option.

1. Gestures 1a

As soon as you do that, your phone will give you an option to learn gestures. If you have never used gestures before, I would recommend that you tap on the “Learn” button to get familiar with it. Anyways, the gestures are pretty simple to get used to. You can swipe from the bottom to go home, swipe from the bottom and stop in the middle to go to Recents menu, and swipe from the left or right edge of the screen to go back. You can also swipe and hold from the left or right edge to go back to the previous app instead of going back a page on the same app, which is really nice. The best part about using gestures on Mi 8 SE is that it feels fluid and works every time. If you love gestures, you are going to love the Mi 8 SE.

1. Gestures 2a

2. Face Unlock

As mentioned above, the Mi 8 SE is also bringing face unlocking feature and while it might not have the infrared sensor present on the normal Mi 8, it works every time. To setup face unlock on your Mi 8 SE, open the Settings app and then tap on “Lock screen & password” option. Here, tap on “Add face data” to add your face data for the unlocking purposes.

2. Face Unlock 1a

While adding your face data, just position your face so that it falls inside the circle and your face data will be added. Next time you want to unlock your smartphone, just raise it and allow it to look at your face. The face unlock is fast and works every time. However, do remember that it’s not as secure as your fingerprint scanner and hence cannot be used for things like payment authentication.

2. Face Unlock 2a

3. Hide Notch

Now that we have talked about the gestures and the face unlock, let’s talk about the notch. Yes, it’s there, and yes it looks ugly as hell. However, give it a few days and you will get used to it and won’t mind it much. That said, if you are someone who cannot live with the notch no matter what, the Mi 8 SE gives you an option to hide it. To hide the notch, go to Settings -> Full screen display and enable the “Hide Screen notch” option.

3. Hide Notcha

4. Always on Mode

One of my favorite feature coming with the Mi 8 SE is the “Always on mode” which allows you to always show time, date, and messages on the lock screen when it’s off. I used to love this feature on my old Motorola phones and I am happy that it’s here. It looks even better on the Mi 8 SE as it packs a Super AMOLED panel which means that the phone only has to light up the pixels that it needs to. If you also love Always on mode, you can enable it by going to Settings -> Display -> Always on mode, and then flicking the icon to enable it.

4. Always on Mode 1a While you are here, you will see that there’s also an option to schedule the Always on mode. The scheduling feature allows you to set the time of the day for which you want your Always on mode to appear. I keep it on all the time, but you have the option to schedule it if you want to.

4. Always on Mode 2a

5. Slow Motion Video Recording

The Mi 8 SE packs very good camera hardware which allows you to take some really nice photos and videos. One of the camera features that Mi 8 SE is bringing is the ability to record slow-motion videos. With Mi 8 SE, you can record slow-motion videos at 120 frames per second at 1080p quality or at 240 fps at 720p quality. To record slow-motion videos on your Mi 8 SE, first launch the camera app and then go to video mode. Here, tap on the hamburger menu at the top-right corner and then tap on “Slow-motion” video icon.

5. Slow Motion Video Recording 1a When the icon turns blue, it means that you can now record videos in slow-motion. To setup up the recording preferences, inside the same hamburger menu, tap on Settings -> Video HFR and then select your preference. You have three options to choose from, which are 720p at 120 fps, 1080p at 120 fps, and 720p at 240 fps. Higher the fps the better will be the slow-motion effect. However, do not that the at higher fps, the recording will be of lower quality as it only supports 720p recording at 240 fps. So, choose your record settings to match your needs.

5. Slow Motion Video Recording 2a

6. AI Portrait Shots

Another great camera feature coming with the Mi 8 SE is the AI-powered portrait shots. Basically, the camera uses artificial intelligence to give you bokeh effect in shots. To use portrait shots capability, just launch the camera app and swipe right to left on the camera viewfinder to go into portrait mode.

6. AI Portrait Shots 1a

Now, just point the phone at the subject and click the picture to take pictures with bokeh mode effect. If you want, you can also tap on the filter icon (marked in the picture below) to take apply filters even before you take the picture.

6. AI Portrait Shots 2a

7. Enable AI Scene Detection

One novel feature coming with the Mi 8 SE is the new “AI Scene Detection” which utilizes artificial intelligence along with your phone’s camera to identify the things around you. It seems that this feature is still in beta as it doesn’t work a 100% of the times, however, I am pretty sure that it will work once the phone is officially released in India.7. Enable AI Scene Detection 1aTo use the AI Scene Detection feature, launch the camera app and then tap on the AI button at the top. Once you tap on it, it will turn blue to show that it’s working. Now, just point your camera at a scene and it will detect it and automatically apply the effects to give you the best possible photos. For example, in the picture below, you can see the leaf icon which shows that the phone identified that a plant is in focus.

7. Enable AI Scene Detection 2a

8. Manage Apps Like a Pro

One of the most underrated features coming with the Mi 8 SE is the ability to manage multiple apps at once. I especially love the feature which allows me to uninstall multiple apps at once. To access this new feature, first, open the “Security app” and then tap on the “Manage apps” option.

8. Manage Apps Like a Pro 1a

Here, as you can see, you have four different tabs. The first is the “Updates” tab where you will find the pending updates of all the apps in a single place. The “Uninstall” tab allows you to delete multiple apps at a time while the “Dual apps” tab allows you to create a clone of your apps. Finally, the “Permissions” tab is where you manage the permissions given to the apps. Since I personally install a ton of apps for testing, the Uninstall tab is a boon for me. This is a very cool feature and I know that you guys are going to love it.

8. Manage Apps Like a Pro 2a

9. Recents Menu Tips

Since the Mi 8 SE will be running on the MIUI 10 when it launches in India, a few things have changed which we will need to get used to. For example, now locking an app in the Recents menu and accessing the app-specific information is a little different than how it was before. Now, to access these features, first, you have to access the Recents Menu and then tap and hold on a card.

9. Redesigned Recents Menu 2a As you can see in the picture above there are three different options. The first one helps you lock apps so that even if you clear the recent apps, it won’t get clear. The second option lets you go into split-screen mode while the last one opens the app info page. Tap on the three options to explore it for yourself.

9. Redesigned Recents Menu 3a

10. Picture-in-Picture Mode

With MIUI 10, Xiaomi finally introduced the “Picture-in-Picture” mode feature and it’s coming to the Mi 8 SE. The Mi 8 SE users will be able to enjoy this awesome feature for the apps that support it. My favorite use of the picture-in-picture mode is while navigating as it allows me to quickly access other apps without quitting the navigation. To use PIP mode, when you are navigating, just hit the home button and the Google Maps will automatically start the PIP mode.

10. Picture-in-Picture Modea

11. Set-up Do Not Disturb Countdown

If you use “Do Not Disturb” or DND mode on your smartphone you know that the biggest disadvantage of using this mode is that when we forget to turn it off, we miss out on all the important notifications. Xiaomi has tried to solve this problem by allowing users to set-up a DND countdown timer. Once the timer has run it course, the DND mode automatically disengages. This is a very handy feature for users who like to use DND mode on their phones without the fear of forgetting to turn it off.

11. Set-up Do Not Disturb Countdown 1a

To set up a DND countdown, first, tap on the volume key to open the new volume menu. Here, tap on the 3-dot option. Now, tap on the DND button to activate the DND mode. When you activate the DND mode, you will find a new slider at the bottom. You can slide the slider from left to right to set the duration of DND mode. The slider can be set anywhere between 0 minutes to 8 hours which should be more than enough for everyone. I am certainly enjoying this feature and can see it being used by numerous users.

11. Set-up Do Not Disturb Countdown 2a

12. Setup Auto-Fill in Apps

The last Mi 8 SE feature that I am going to share with you guys will not only make your life easier but also more secure. The “Auto-Fill in Apps” feature allows the phone to directly input your saved password in apps without making you type it. The feature is really easy to set-up and here is how you can do it.

12. Setup Auto-Fill in Apps 1a

To set-up auto-fill in apps go to Settings -> Additional settings -> Languages & Input -> Autofill service. Here, select Google or tap on “Add service” option to add any other third-party password manager service that you might be using (example: LastPass). That’s it, now when you open an app, you will see the option to autofill login ID and password.

12. Setup Auto-Fill in Apps 2a

SEE ALSO: Xiaomi Mi 8 vs OnePlus 6 Specs Comparison: Which Flagship Takes The Crown?

Enjoy These Awesome Mi 8 SE Features!

That ends our list of the best features and tips for your Mi 8 SE. There’s a lot to like here and I am certainly enjoying these features on my Mi 8 SE. Do check out the list and let us know which is your favorite feature by writing in the comments section below. Also, let us know how much you are excited about the new Mi 8 SE.

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